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#3. Application Discussion: General Directions for every week’s Disc #3 here: Ge

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#3. Application Discussion:
General Directions for every week’s Disc #3 here: General Directions for Discussion #3
Post in this discussion: Wk 5 – #3 Application
Specific Activities are described below.
Grading: See Grading Rubric – Discussion #3
Do the 1 activity below.
Read the Crowley et al research paper here: Crowley.pdf
To help you, I have done an example for you. Here is the article: Hamilton.pdf, and here is a diagram of the hypothesis, variables and operational definitions: Hamilton answers diagram.jpg
What is a hypothesis? What is the hypothesis of the Crowley et al study?
What is a theory? What is the theory that the hypothesis comes from in the Crowley et al study? (Be sure to relate and distinguish the two terms)
What is a variable? Conceptual definition of a variable? Operational definition of a variable? For two of the main variables in the hypothesis of the Crowley et al study, describe how they operationally defined each variable. Be sure to describe both ends of the scale – like trustworthy to treacherous, or high self-esteem to low self-esteem. What is the difference between subjective and objective scales? What are dimensions of a variable? For the variables mentioned in #3, are they objective or subjective scales?
Is the Crowley et al study closer to an experiment, correlational study, or descriptive/case study/naturalistic observation? Explain your reasoning.
Give a reference list citation for the Crowley et al study in APA format. Much of the information is on the first page of the article ( and other online sources help. Our library has a style guide handout as well).
There are many examples of operational definitions in the text to show you what they look like. Research studies are typically broken into sections. Here’s an overview of how to read a research article:
Some Thoughts on Reading an Original Research Report
Some Thoughts on Reading an Original Research Report (some scholarly articles are research reports)
Don’t read it front to back. Read abstract, don’t try to understand the sentences, but see if you can spot the main variables and the result. E.g. for Koren-Karie, the 3 variables are: insightfulness, attachment, and sensitive behavior by mother. What’s the result? Does mother’s insightfulness make a difference? Then read discussion to understand results. Go back as necessary to other sections. If you’ve never read something in the area, read intro before discussion for general idea of what’s going on.
Abstracts – are written for many audiences, for databases, read to see main question they ask. Sometimes they give main results.
Introduction – don’t read too much the first time through. An intro is everything
other people said before I can tell you my point (or how my idea fits in the bigger picture) . Be careful when quoting from intro – it’s what came before the study and may be challenged by study’s results. The theory and hypothesesare likely to be in here. Sometimes the hypothesis is the last sentence of the introduction.
Methods or Procedures – not meant to be read straight through. Notice sub-headings like participants, subjects, measures, etc. If there’s one that’s of particular interest, such as how they measured a particular defense mechanism, read that piece.
Operational definitions are in here. Look for “measures” or a similar sub-heading. Sometimes they just have a sub-heading for each specific variable, such as “Self-esteem.”
Results – Breeze through to see if you can pick up some things. Skip descriptive and demographics unless you have a question. Look to the tables, see if you can guess which variables are being measured, and read the stars. More stars is more significant.
Discussion (of results) – Read this front to back. They write like a newspaper, most important results are discussed earlier. Sometimes they discuss some basic results first to set up the good ones. You don’t have to read to the end. Most often, here’s where you read and come up with questions that you need to check the earlier sections for answers.
Conclusion – not always there – they apply their discussion to say: what is impact? Where does this fit in big world? Reverse direction of introduction. Throughout this reading there’s a question and answer process:
What are they studying? Why didn’t they think about?
Example questions:
Was this study on how people break up only on teenagers? Check methods – participants or subjects. Or check Table 1 / demographics / descriptives in Results.
Sure quality day care is important, but this doesn’t sound right. Check methods for description of how they measured quality.

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