Answer both Part I and Part II. Part I. Answer one of the following questions (
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Answer both Part I and Part II.
Part I. Answer one of the following questions (5 pages maximum)
What were the most important historical consequences (up to the
thirteenth century C. E. ) of the fact that Islam was already politicized during the lifetime of Muḥammad?
How would you explain the emergence of sectarian divisions within the Islamic community, and what were the most important social and political consequences up to the thirteenth century?
Part II. Answer one of the following questions (5 pages maximum)
How did the main political, military, economic, social, and religious institutions associated with later Islamic civilization develop and spread geographically from the tenth to the thirteenth century C.E.?
How did the nature of political legitimacy among Muslims change from the tenth century C.E. onward?
What were the most important factors contributing to the formation of a society composed of associative groups in western Asia and North Africa from the tenth century C.E. onward?
no more than 5 pages for each question, so you can do 4 pages for each question. you may use these sources and find them.
Kennedy, Hugh. The Prophet and the age of the Caliphates: the Islamic Near East from the sixth to the eleventh century. Routledge, 2015.
Lapidus, Ira M. A history of Islamic societies. Cambridge University Press, 2002.