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General Guidelines:
• Submission only o as World/PDF File.
• You are required to use the attached “answer-booklet” template to fill-up your answer.
you have learned that Unified Modelling Language (UML) is a standard modelling language, which is diagrammatic, but also allowing developers to add text, and is easy to use, efficiently expressive, unambiguous, widely used and supported by tools. It is a specification language that is used in the software engineering field. It can be defined as a general purpose language that uses a graphical designation which can create an abstract model.
1. In no more than 500 words and using your own words, explain the importance of UML diagrams in software development, especially in large projects such as enterprise solutions.
2. Add relevant diagrams where necessary to explain your answer.
3. At least 3 references. All references must be in the Harvard style of referencing and must be accompanied by proper in-text citations.
Note: Your answer must be formed as a report (Introduction, main discussion, conclusion and references)
An agile project has documentation in the form of user stories and tests. A user story describes some functionality required by a user, while a test is an executable form of a user story and therefore directly related to it. Testing early is at the heart of agile development, which promotes, for example, that acceptance tests should be written for each user story before any code is written.
• Assume the scenario of a university’s Student Information System: A university student can register courses online and pay online using the system.
• Suggest at least FIVE user stories as part of acceptance test for the above scenario. You must justify your answer with a brief description.
This question makes use of an imaginary software application, the below introduced scenario about a real-time Hospital Management System. You are required to answer Questions from 3.1 to 3.14 based on the scenario.
First Care Medical: A Real-Time Hospital Management System
The increase in the patients during Covid-19 outbreaks causes emergency and confused situations in First Care Medical hospital premises. It is crucial for the hospital administrative to ensure proper treatment of sick people while accepting the large volumes of visits. The First Care Medical hospital management believes that due to the current exceptional situation, the existing systems will not help in satisfying the needs of patients. Hence, the hospital management has decided to build a new real-time software system to handle the operations efficiently.
• Currently the hospital is operating using individual systems for various operations.
• You are working in a software developing firm a system analyst.
• Your company has received the order to develop the hospital’s new real-time system.
Further Requirements to complete the development of the system are provided below:
The First Care Medical hospital management requires that the new system should be operational within three months which includes deployment and user trainings. The management would like to ensure the security of the stakeholders. Therefore, the management requested you as the system analyst to ensure the authentication of all users. All registered users must login to the system to perform their assigned tasks according to their privileges. The system should be allow many payment options available as possible, like acceptance of several credit and debit cards, mobile payment apps, and support of multiple currencies. The system will be accessible and usable from all types of browsers.
The system could provide real-time information about vacate beds, available doctors, and staff and can help administrative staff in allotting the required necessities to patients. The system must have facility management features to prevent any equipment downtime. The system should have the feature to monitor the inventory, surgical equipment, other equipment and all essential medications and automatically send alerts for a purchase order. This will ensure the uninterrupted supply of items.
The doctors can keep a patient’s records in easily access databases. With one click, all reports should be displayed on the screen in order to save time. The reports include previous medical history and medications. The doctors should write prescriptions and send to pharmacy, admit to wards if necessary, send request to laboratory and radiology departments and send summary to administration.
With large number of patients in the hospital, it is difficult for the nurses to ensure medicines are administered timely. The system should send patient-wise alerts for medicine and normal check-up time to the concerned nurses. The nurses should be able to view patients’ details, prescription details and ward details. The nurses should be able to view and print their ward duty schedule. The pharmacy staff should be able to view the prescriptions, medicine stock and print receipts. The laboratory staff and radiology staff should be able to view the doctor’s requirements and produce soft and hard copy reports.
The administrative staff should get real-time reports on discharge timings of already treated patients helps to determine waiting time for other patients in queue. The system should help the administrator to decide if it would be practical for them to close the waiting list so that patients can quickly informed and they can initiate a search for another hospital. The system should provide Appointment Reminders, Appointment scheduling and Patient Queue Management. The system should have an appointment scheduler feature for the patients looking for diagnosis to pre-book appointments. Patients will be able to pay online by providing accurate details otherwise the system alerts and rejects the payment.
Members of special taskforce should be able to use a ’Telemedicine’ feature because of the mass quarantine scenarios as well as the insufficient space to accommodate more patients. The system should allow them to implement ’tele-health’ feature. This will ensure only the most needed patients and emergency cases will be admitted and comparatively less sick can be treated virtually at their home. They should be able to assign medical practitioners Video Conferencing feature. The management expecting the proposed system to handle up to 3000 users at a time with a user friendly interface. The system should be designed in a way that a user should be able to learn to use the functionality with maximum one weeks’ training.
The system should allow the Hospital Director to evaluate the firm’s operating results, perform financial analysis, approve the tele-medicine system, appointing doctors for virtual treatment and setting the compensation for patients, if needed.
Operations of the organizational units and components
The paragraph below shows the organizational units and components of the First Care Medical hospital.
The hospital details to be stored are hospital name, license number, address, contact number and email address. The hospital has various departments and there are many staff working in these departments. The major departments are administrative, financial and medical. The administrative staff deals with the out-patient sections to manage the pre-booking, appointment reminders, appointment scheduling and patient queue management. The out-patient section details to be stored are sectionID, room number and staff number.
The hospital is organized into a number of wards, each of which may be empty or may be occupied by one or more patients. Each patient in the hospital has a patient identification number and name recorded, their gender, height and weight is kept on record. Each patient is assigned to a single ward and is the responsibility of a single doctor who must have a position of resident. Each resident is responsible for a number of patients.
Each ward is identified by a ward number; it has a name and contains a fixed number of beds. Each ward is staffed by one or more nurses. A nurse is assigned to a single ward. Nurses work under the medical department. Each nurse is identified by a staff number and has a name. Some nurses, with experience, are nominated to supervise one or more other nurses on the same ward. A nurse has at most one supervisor. The pharmacy staff also works under the medical department and the details to be recorded are staff number and job description. The pharmacy staff supplies dosage of medicine to one or more nurses according to the prescriptions.
Doctors work under the medical department. Details of the junior doctors and consultants, visiting doctors are also recorded. Each doctor in the hospital has a staff number, name and specialism recorded. Each doctor may provide treatment for several patients and each patient may receive treatment from a number of doctors. A patient may receive more than one treatment from each doctor, for which the start date and the reason for the treatment are recorded. The treatment may require several prescriptions, each of which has a prescription number and specifies a total quantity and daily dosage of a medication. A medication may appear on different prescriptions. Each medication has a unique code, a type and unit price as well as a description.
Appointment scheduling by an administrative staff
The below given is a scenario shows the process of patient appointment scheduling by an administrative staff.
The staff login to the system, the system validates the credentials. The staff selects appointment page and select an appointment date. Add the patient ID and send for an appointment to the system. The system verifies the date and accepts or reject based on the availability of the booking slot on that particular date. If the booking is available, the database will be updated and send confirmation message to the staff, or sends an error message.
3.1 Briefly describe the problem mentioned in the scenario.
3.2 Identify any TWO requirement constrains mentioned in the scenario.
3.3 Extract TWO business processes from the given scenario
3.4 Examine the business rules mentioned in the given scenario and specify them.
3.5 There are a set of functional requirements of the system mentioned in the given scenario.
Identify any THREE along with their types and classify into low, medium and high priorities
3.6 There are a set of non- functional requirements of the system mentioned in the given scenario.
• List THREE of them with their types
• Suggest three additional non-functional requirements with their types
3.7 Write a brief explanation about applying validation and verification processes to your system.
3.8 Project issues: invent example that could apply to your proposed system.
3.9 Provide a textual description of the use case – “Doctor admits a patient to a room”
Requirements of the Textual Description
 Identifier and name
 Initiator
 Goal
 Post-condition
 Precondition
 Assumptions
 Main success scenario
 Extensions
3.10 Draw a use case diagram to model the user role illustrated in the given scenario.
Requirements of the use case
• Use Cases [based on the scenario] • Actors [mentioned in the scenario] • Relationships
o An association between an actor and a use case
o A generalization between two actors
o An association between two use cases (Included Use Case and Extending Use Case)
• System Boundary Boxes
• Textual Note to record your observations
3.11 Draw an activity diagram for the textual; description for the “Doctor admits a patient to a room” you have demonstrated in Question 3.9.
Requirements of the activity diagram
• Activities
• Start node
• End node
• Transition
• Synchronization bar, if any
• Decision node
• Merge node, if any
• Guard
• Swim lane
3.12 Identify all the classes based on the given organizational units, components and their operations of the hospital.
3.13 Build an initial level class diagram to store the entities details into a database based on the given organizational units, components and their operations of the hospital.
Requirements of the Class Diagram
• All classes based on the scenario should be included
• You should represent appropriate multiplicities and association between classes.
• You should represent aggregation, composition and inheritance relationship between the identified classes.
• Kindly note that you must show these relationships using text notes.
• You should represent at least one for each of the following:
Qualified association
Recursive association
3.14Draw a sequence diagram for the Appointment scheduling by an administrative staff.
Requirements of the sequence diagram
• The objects involved
• Messages between the objects
• The objects’ lifelines
• A fragment [if any]

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