Please use attachments to help with answer In this question, propose a learning
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Please use attachments to help with answer
In this question, propose a learning experience and 3–5 carefully constructed learning outcomes that you expect your current or future students (or trainees) to be able to achieve. Write an academic argument for the learning outcomes.
As we stated earlier, the first step in designing assessment is to begin at the end—that is, by stating what students will know and be able to do by the end of a learning experience. This is the first step Suskie identifies in the teaching-learning-assessment process: “Establish clear, observable expected goal for student learning” (p. 8). This important step of setting learning outcomes first is an accepted practice in higher education, as leading experts in assessment have reported: “Stated learning outcomes are now the norm. Clearly articulated learning goals are important in determining whether students know and can do what an institution promises and what employers and policymakers expect” (Kuh, Jankowski, Ikenberry, & Kinzie, 2014, p. 4). As you design learning outcomes, it is also important is to keep in mind that we cannot “assess what cannot be taught” (Suskie, 2018, p. 275). This week’s readings will provide important context for you, as you learn how to write effective learning outcomes.
In Assessing Student Learning: A Common Sense Guide, read Chapter 4, “Learning Goals: Articulating What You Most Want Students to Learn,” pages 39–62.
Creating learning outcomes that clearly describe what you expect students to learn is an essential foundation to your Assessment of Learning Plan, so pay close attention to Suskie’s writing in this chapter. These concepts will prepare you for the quiz you will take this week.
Pay particular attention to how you will apply “Characteristics of effective learning goals,” pages 46–48 (note how to avoid “fuzzy terms”).
Note how this chapter refers to Bloom’s Taxonomy (page 52). Use words from Bloom’s Taxonomy Action Verbs [PDF] as you design your own learning outcomes for this week’s discussion and your Assessment of Learning Plan.
Note also how the chapter includes tips for creating program learning outcomes (page 55) and institutional goals (pages 56–57).
This week, you will write a draft of the first section of your Assessment of Learning Plan, by creating observable, measurable, clearly stated outcomes of the knowledge, skills, or abilities that students or trainees will be expected to demonstrate by the end of a course, program, or other experience. Study the following examples, noting the structure and wording commonly used for creating learning outcomes. Be ready to apply the structure and wording to the learning outcomes you will begin developing this week for your own Assessment of Learning Plan.
Here are four examples of appropriate learning outcomes:
Students will demonstrate the ability to analyze the characteristics of professional behavior.
Note the italicized words. They are commonly used for such statements, but do we really need to include “demonstrate the ability to?” Consider whether the outcome will be the same if we state, “Students will be able to analyze the characteristics of professional behavior.”
Students will be able to identify the purpose of strategic planning for an organization.
Note the italicized words again. You might decide that you don’t really need “be able to” and just state:
Students will identify the purpose of strategic planning for an organization.
Career services trainees will design interview questions for client mock interviews.
Students will be able to explain the differences between matter and energy.
Now study the difference between appropriate and not-so-appropriate learning outcomes below. Note that many poorly stated goals fall into one of three categories of errors:
Writing outcomes that are not clear or cannot be measured or observed. See the description of “fuzzy terms” on pages 47–48 in Assessing Student Learning: A Common Sense Guide. Note that these types of outcomes often include general, broad terms like “understand” or “know” which are difficult to measure. Instead, focus on what a student might be able to do that would prove to you that they know or understand what you want them to.
These are examples of poorly written learning outcomes that include vague or “fuzzy terms”:
Students will demonstrate their understanding of the scientific method.
Students will be able to understand the purpose of strategic planning for an organization.
Students will demonstrate their knowledge of …
Students will gain an understanding of …
Students will learn about …
Students will become familiar with …
Describing an activity or learning experience. See “Describe outcomes, not learning content, products, or activities” on page 48 in Assessing Student Learning: A Common Sense Guide. These are examples of poorly written learning outcomes that describe an assignment or learning activity, instead of focusing on the outcome of that learning activity. Again, remember your learning outcome should answer the question: what skill, knowledge, or behavior do we want students to have as a result of the learning activity.
Students will write a 10-page research paper.
Students will attend tutoring services at least once weekly.
Students will participate actively in group discussions.
Students will give three presentations on genres of music from different historical periods.
Describing what will be done for students, not what they will do to demonstrate what they know and can do. It is tempting to focus on what we do for students, rather than on what the students will demonstrate to show that they have learned what we want them to learn. In each of the following statements, consider who is really doing an action. These are examples of poorly written learning outcomes that focus on what the teacher will do—not what the students will learn. Instead, be sure to focus on the outcome of the instruction—not the instruction itself:
Students will be given instruction in basic grammar and writing skills.
Students will be provided with a map of the campus to locate student services offices.
Students will be empowered to take a leadership role in a campus organization.
Creating Effective Learning Outcomes
After reading Chapter 4 of Suskie’s (2018) Assessing Student Learning and completing this week’s tutorial and quiz, use Bloom’s Taxonomy Action Verbs [PDF] to develop 3–5 learning outcomes that you expect your current or future students (or trainees) to be able to achieve as a result of a learning experience, such as a course, program, activity, or field experience. The context for these learning outcomes should be the course, department, or institution that you selected for your course project.
First, write a brief paragraph that summarizes the course, program, activity, or experience in which students or trainees will engage in learning. Then, using the structure and wording used for stating learning outcomes, as presented in the tutorial, post 3–5 carefully constructed learning outcomes that students will be expected to achieve as a result of their learning experience. Before posting your learning outcomes, review each one to be sure it is:
Observable, measurable, and clearly stated.
Uses only one action verb (presented in Bloom’s Taxonomy).
Does not include “fuzzy terms” (Suskie, 2018, pp.47–48).
Is focused on the outcome (or result) of the learning experience, not the process of teaching or learning.
Using and citing the readings for this week, present an academic argument for the specific learning outcomes you develop. For example, you could explain how these learning outcomes meet the criteria outlined by Suskie (2018) in Chapter 4.