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POST 1 V. Soda Application of Theory to Practice  The article chosen was entitle

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POST 1
V. Soda
Application of Theory to Practice 
The article chosen was entitled Knowledge for good of the individual and society: Linking philosophy, disciplinary goals, theory, and practice by McCurry, Revell, and Roy (2010). This article looks into a correlated theory to guide disciplinary goals to promote health and prevent illness internationally. Nursing goals were aimed not just to an individual but the culture in which the person subsides (McCurry, Revell, Roy, 2010). 
Summarization of Article
This article utilized middle-range theory because of its similarity of the goal of health “for all and its goodness of all levels of nursing practice from the individual” and can be applied globally (McCurry, Revell, & Roy, 2010, p. 43). This model was used, in correlation was McCubbin and Patterson’s Double ABCX model,  to depict how middle-range can “be expanded to assess communities and the larger society” to decipher existing and needed resources (McCurry, Revell, & Roy, 2010, p. 50). The theory is prescriptive because it focuses upon presenting change and viewing outcomes of nursing interventions (McEwin & Wills, 2019). The article depicted the importance of correlating the philosophical view, structured goals, and actions with continuing knowledge in relation to the good of an individual and society (McCurry, Revell, & Roy, 2010). 
Value of Theory for Nursing Research 
It is within nursing that there is a “disciplinary goal to contribute to the health of individuals and the overall health of society” (McCurry, Revell, & Roy, 2010, p. 43). To accomplish these goals of contribution, nursing theories assist for this achievement. It is noted that the knowledge in the nursing profession is based upon theories. They are the maps that direct evidence-based practicse in nursing care. In addition to this knowledge, “validation is needed as well by research validating answers” to create the evidence-based practices (McCurry, Revell, & Roy, 2010, p. 43). 
Example How Theory is Applied
Theory is applied in nursing practice by presentations that are evidence based and used in any nursing setting. An example of a universal utilized theory is the use of hand-hygiene as a preventative measure for health care acquired infections and to decrease the spread of pathogens (Gould, Moraljo, Drey, & Chudleigh, 2010). Another example entailing a theory that relates particularly to what is presented to nursing students is theorist Dorthea Orem (Simmons, 2009). Dorthea Orem focused upon the ability of self-care, and presenting it to students as a nursing professor and towards patient care, categorizes it uniquely to the theory flourishing upon self-care during nursing education, nursing profession, and personal life.
References
Gould, D., Moralejo, D., Drey, N., & Chudleigh, J. (2010). Interventions to improve hand
hygiene compliance in patient care. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (9). 
Gray, J.R., Grove, S.K., & Sutherland, S. (2017). Burns and Grove’s the practice of nursing research:
Appraisal, synthesis, and generation of evidence (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Saunders Elsevier.
McCurry, M.K., Revell, S.M.H., & Roy, S.C. (2010). Knowledge for the good of the individual and society:
Linking philosophy, disciplinary goals, theory, and practice. Nursing Philosophy, 11(1), 42-52. doi:
10.1111/j.1466-769X.2009.00423.x
McEwin, M. & Wills, E.M. (2019). Theoretical basis for nursing (5th ed.). Philadelphia, PA:
Wolters Kluwer Health 
Simmons, L. (2009). Dorthea Orem’s self care theory as related to nursing practice in hemodialysis.
Nephrology Nursing Journal, 36(4), 419-421.
POST 2
D. Strickland
Middle Range Theories
Health Belief Model
Middle range theories guide the practitioner in understanding the client’s behavior, enabling interventions that are more effective (Gray, Grove, & Sutherland, 2017, p. 147).  The middle range theories are more in tune  with everyday practice and are sometimes called substantive theories.  The constructs of the Health Belief Model are perceived susceptibility-an individual’s subjective assessment whether the health problem presents a risk to her/him, perceived severity-an individual’s subjective assessment regarding the severity of the health problem and its potential consequences, perceived benefits-an individual’s subjective assessment of the value or efficacy of engaging in a health-promoting behavior to decrease the risk of the disease, perceived barriers-an individual’s assessment of the obstacles to behavior changes, cues to action-a stimulus is needed to trigger actions and self-efficacy-the individual’s confidence in his/her ability to affect change in outcomes (Canfield, 2020, p. 14).
Article Summary
The article that I studied was Understanding precautionary behaviors among neighbors of COVID-19 positive patients using health belief model:  An analysis from available evidence 
(2020). This study researches the perceptions that close contacts and neighbors had regarding COVID-19 positive patients who lived in the same apartment complex.    The results of the study found that risk perception was high, stress among the non-positive COVID-19 participants was elevated and those who worked in health care were perceived to be a high risk threat to the other members of the community, and this caused he members of the apartment community to have resentment towards the health care workers.  This theory was predictive.  Health Belief Model has been used to study behaviors related to preventing or mitigating disease and posits that messages will achieve optimal behavior change if they successfully target perceived barriers, benefits, self-efficacy and threats (Ghosh, Bhattacharya, Pramanik, & Chakrabarti, 2020, p. 280). 
Value of Theory for Nursing Research
How Theory is Used in Family Practice Clinic
The three important factors in nursing are theory, research and practice.  In any discipline, science is the result of the relationship between the process of inquiry (research) and the product of knowledge ( theory) (Saleh, 2018, p. 18).  A large and important part of the knowledge that is used in nursing is obtained through research.  Because COVID-19 was a novel virus there was a need for research on how to stop the spread of this virus.  From infection control, to mask wearing and social distancing 6 feet were all researched and policy was implemented.  The family practice heard of this novel virus but did not understand the impact it would have on the clinic and the staff as a whole.  Initially patients cancelled their appointments and we went from seeing almost 70-90 patient a day to maybe seeing 20 patients daily.  One way to be able to provide care to our patients was by way of telemedicine.  Because this way to see patients was not provided in our office, we had to research the efficacy, develop a policy, implement the policy and then analyze the effectiveness of telemedicine.  We had to revise the policy just one time in order to provide for our older patients who are not savvy in technology.  The office had to also develop and implement a policy for patient’s who wished to be seen in the office.  Because the research had already been done by the CDC, the office management team had to develop and implement a patient process that would allow for safety while being seen in the office.
References
Canfield, S. J. (2020). Back to the future: COVID-19 and the Health Belief Model. Retrieved fromhttps://content.ebscohost.com/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=AN&K=146498353&S=R&D=rzh&EbscoContent=dGJyMNLr40SeprY4wtvhOLCmsEiep7VSsqa4SLCWxWXS&ContentCustomer=dGJyMPGss0q1qK5IuePfgeyx5n3f4vKA8dnn
Ghosh, N., Bhattacharya, S., Pramanik, T., & Chakrabarti, I. (2020). Understanding precautionary behaviors among neighbors of COVID-19 positive patients using health belief model: An analysis from available evidence. Medical Journal of Babylon, 17(3), 278-281. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/MJBL.MJBL_45_20
Gray, J. R., Grove, S. K., & Sutherland, S. (2017). Burns and Grove’s the Practice of Nursing Research Appraisal, Synthesis and Generation of evidence (8 ed.). St Louis MO: E
Saleh, U. S. (2018). Theory guided practice in nursing. Journal of Nursing Research and Practice, 2(1), 18. Retrieved from https://www.pulsus.com/scholarly-articles/theory-guided-practice-in-nursing.pdf
EXAMPLE OF HOW THE REPLY COMMENT LOOKS
Comfort theory, through Kolcaba, brings forth the emphasis of viewing a person as a holistic being. In correlation to this model, a philosopher, named Maritain, showed reasoning “on the philosophical basis for the good of individuals and society” (McCurry, Revel, & Roy, 2010, p. 45). He formulated an emphasis that an individual is a portion of humans, part of the universe, and as a whole survives morally as a spiritual soul (McCurry, Revell, & Roy, 2010). With Kolcaba’s theory there was also the articulation in discussing patients and their families. Engagements from both patient and families allow that comfort to be fulfilled resulting in organizational benefits, such as decreased cost and length of stay (Kolcaba, Tilton, & Drouin, 2006). Comfort is a fundamental need for care in any institution so it can be viewed as “a common denominator” within an organization (Kolcaba, Tilton, & Drouin, 2006, p. 343). If there was not a focus upon this fundamental need, where would research currently be? Where would the progress of nursing care and institutions be at? Can there be a collaboration with Kolcaba’s and Maritain’s approaches?
References
Kolcaba, K., Tilton, C., & Drouin, C. (2006). Comfort theory: A unifying framework to enhance thepractice environment. Journal of Nursing Administration, 36(11), 538-544. McCurry, M.K., Revell, S.M.H., & Roy, S.C. (2010). Knowledge for the good of the individual and society:
Linking philosophy, disciplinary goals, theory, and practice. Nursing Philosophy, 11(1), 42-52. doi:
10.1111/j.1466-769X.2009.00423.x

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